Volume 5 Supplement 7
Oleoresin yield and carbon stocks in tapped subtropical Pinus elliottiiforests
© Rodrigues-Corrêa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Published: 13 September 2011
Low-cost methods to mitigate the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and their implications on global climate change have received considerable attention in the last years [1, 2]. Afforestation is an important alternative to reduce the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration due to the system's ability to fix carbon in forest biomass and soil . Several studies have been performed to estimate carbon sequestration in temperate, tropical, and mediterranean forests ecosystems [4, 5]. However, there are no reports related to carbon balance in pine forests used for oleoresin tapping grown under subtropical climate. The main goal of this research is to estimate the effect of resin tapping on C sequestration by Pinus elliottii forests.
Material and methods
Resin tapping operation
In June 2009, 90 slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) trees of a 14 year-old forest were selected based on a previously determined DBH interval (between 23.48 ±1.12 and 22.77 ±0.88). Since the beginning of the essay, pine trees have been biweekly stimulated to produce oleoresin . Three treatments were evaluated for pine biomass increase and oleoresin yield: bark streak (mechanical wound), paste (mechanical wound + chemical stimulation) and control (intact trees). At the end of each season, the released oleoresin was collected and weighed in a digital balance. The results shown below were obtained between Spring 2009 and Winter 2010.
Biomass production and carbon accumulation
In November 2010, fifteen pine trees (5 intact tree control, 5 mechanically wounded, and 5 paste stimulated tapped trees) were felled and weighed in the field to estimate the above and belowground total fresh biomass of trees. Sub-samples of each part of trees were collected and dried in an oven at 105°C until reaching constant dry weight. The carbon content per unit dry weight present in the aboveground and belowground biomass was estimated using a carbon content of 50% . Data were analyzed for differences between resin treatments (bark streak vs. paste) by comparison of means by ANOVA and Tukey test (Systat Software Inc., Richmond, CA USA); significance was set at P £0.05).
Results and conclusions
These results indicate that carbon stored in aboveground biomass appeared to represent the main carbon pool of tree biomass and that resin tapping had minor impact on C allocation in wood biomass, considering the time frame and stand age examined. Further studies and sampling times are ongoing in order to better characterize carbon stocks in subtropical slash pine plantations and to elucidate the contribution of oleoresin production in carbon stocks and its relation with C in wood biomass.
Funding for this investigation was provided by a consortium of forest companies (Trevo Florestal, Irani/Habitasul Florestal, Florestal Palmares) and the Brazilian agencies National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), National Committee for Improvement of Higher Level Education Personnel (CAPES) and Rio Grande do Sul State Foundation for Research Support (Fapergs).
- Montagnini F, Nair PKR: Carbon Sequestration: An under exploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems. 2004, 61: 281-295. 10.1023/B:AGFO.0000029005.92691.79.Google Scholar
- Winner WE, Thomas SC, Berry JA, Bond BJ, Cooper CE, Hinckley TM, Ehleringer JR, Fessenden JE, Lamb B, McCarthy S, McDowell NG, Phillips N, Williams M: Canopy Carbon Gain and Water Use Analysis of Old-growth Conifers in the Pacific Northwest. Ecosystems. 2004, 7: 482-497.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assesssment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007, UNEP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Návar J: Allometric equations for tree species and carbon stocks for forests of northwestern México. Foret Ecology and Management. 2009, 257 (2): 427-434. 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.028.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Redondo-Brenes A: Growth, carbon sequestration, and management of native tree plantations in humid regions of Costa Rica. New Forests. 2007, 34: 253-268. 10.1007/s11056-007-9052-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodrigues KCS, Azevedo PCN, Sobreiro LE, Pelissari P, Fett-Neto AG: Oleoresin yield of Pinus elliottii plantations in a subtropical climate: effect of tree diameter, wound shape and concentration of active adjuvants in resin stimulating paste. Industrial Crops and Products. 2008, 27: 322-327.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pettersen RC: The chemical composition of wood. The Chemistry of Wood. Edited by: Rowel, R.M. 1984, Advances in Chemistry Series 207, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 57-126.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodrigues KCS, Fett-Neto AG: Oleoresin yield of Pinus elliottii in a subtropical climate: Seasonal variation and effect of auxin and salicylic acid-based stimulant paste:. Industrial Crops and Products. 2009, 30 (2): 316-320. 10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.06.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Steele CL, Lewinsohn E, Croteau R: Induced oleoresin biosynthesis in grand fir as a defense against bark beetles: (monoterpenes/turpentine/diterpenoid resin acids/rosin/stress effects). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995, USA, 92: 4164-4168. 10.1073/pnas.92.10.4164.Google Scholar
- Lewinsohn E, Gijzen M, Muzika RM, Barton K, Croteau R: Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies Grandis) saplings and mature trees 1: modulation of this wound response by light and water stresses. Plant Physiology. 1993, 101: 1021-1028.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roberds JH, Strom BL, Hain FP, Gwaze DP, McKeand SE, Lott LH: Estimates of genetic parameters for oleoresin and growth traits in juvenile loblolly pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 2003, 33: 2469-2476. 10.1139/x03-186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.