Power for analysis with minor allele frequency (MAF) less than 0.05. This figure shows the power of each method to detect each gene as causal for the 200 replicates of the simulation data when including only rarer variants with empirical MAF less than 0.05. The methods perform similarly within each gene. Especially note the performance of the modified replication based sum statistic S
(solid black bar) relative to its predecessors S
. For these data, all 3 methods are very competitive. Below the horizontal axis is the percent signal for each gene (percent of causal rare variants divided by the total number of rare variants multiplied by 100).