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Table 1 Summary of studies describing non-traditional physical activity (PA) programs at workplace

From: Advancing health-enhancing physical activity at workplace: Sport4Heath 2020 scientific forum

Ref. n Duration Exercise program Measured variables Outcomes
[29] 204 (M + F) 16 weeks I - Progressive resistance exercise
C - Bodyweight and elastic band exercises
Musculoskeletal pain intensity
Blood pressure
1-RM strength
BMI
I ↓; C ↓
I ↓; C ↓
I ↑; C ↑
I ↓; C ↓
[30] 350 (M + F) 12 weeks I - Ergonomics and neck/shoulder strengthening exercises
C - Ergonomics and health promotions
Work ability index I →; C →
[27] 8143 (M + F) 72 weeks I - Wellness program including PA and nutrition
C – No treatment
Weight loss
Engagement to exercise
Health-related questioners
Blood pressure
Blood lipids
Absentsism from work
Job performance
I ↓; C →
I ↑; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
[31] 142 (M + F) 24 weeks I - Stretching exercise
EG - Ergonomic modification group
IE - Combined exercise and ergonomic modification group
C - No treatment
Neck pain
Shoulders pain
Lower back pain
I ↓; IE ↓; EG ↓; C →
I ↓; IE ↓; EG ↓; C →
I ↓; IE ↓; EG ↓; C →
[27] 35 (M + F) 7 weeks I - Neck shoulders resistance exercise
C - Stretching and postural exercise
Pain intensity and disability
Active ROM
Muscular endurance
SF-38
I ↓; C ↓
I ↑; C ↑
I ↑; C →
I →; C →
[22] 100 (M + F) 6 weeks I - Pelvic control hamstring stretching
E - General hamstring stretching
C - No treatment
Oswestry disability index
Visual analog scale
Work ability index
Sit and reach test
Straight leg raise
I ↓; E ↓; C ↓
I ↓; E ↓; C →
I ↑; E ↑; C →
I ↑; E ↑; C →
I ↑; E ↑; C →
[32] 200 (F) 10 weeks I - Strength training at work
C - Strength training at home
Vitality and mental health (SF-36)
Psychosocial work environment
Work- and leisure disability
Pain Scale
I ↑; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
I ↓; C →
[19] 96 (M + F) 24 weeks I - Supervised strength exercise for the back and core muscles while on duty
C - No treatment
Back and core muscular endurance I ↑; C →
[24] 14 (M) 12 weeks I – 60 min of specific (welding) strength training
C - No treatment
1RM strength
Blood pressure
RPE during workdays
I ↑; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
[23] 537 (M + F) 20 weeks I - High-intensity strength exercise for neck/shoulders
C - Guidelines and no treatment
Shoulders pain
Neck pain
I ↓; C →
I ↓; C →
[33] 20 (M + F) 16 weeks I - Stretching exercises
IC - Combined exercise and educational intervention
EI - Educational intervention
C - No treatment
Quality of life and health I ↑; IC ↑; EI →; C →
[20] 66 (M + F) 10 weeks I - Strength exercise for the upper body
C - Ergonomic training
Work ability index
Visual analog scale (
I ↑; C ↓
I ↓; C ↑
[21] 58 (F) 12 weeks I - Hamstring stretching
C – No treatment
ROM I ↑; C: →
[25] 67 (NR) 12 weeks I - Combination of aerobic and strength exercise
C - No-treatment
Maximal oxygen uptake
Isometric muscle strength
Blood pressure
Total cholesterol
I ↑; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
I →; C →
[34] 48 (M + F) 6 weeks I - Yoga exercises
C - No treatment
Profile of Mood States Bipolar
Inventory of Positive Psychological Attitudes
I ↑; C →
I ↑; C →
[35] 53 (M + F) 15 weeks I - Light resistant training
C - Exercise guidelines and no-treatment
Low back pain I ↓; C →
  1. Abbreviations: I intervention group; C control group; 1-RM one-repetition maximum; BMI body mass index; ROM range of motion; RPE rates of perceived exertion; IE combined exercise and ergonomic modification group; EI educational intervention EG - ergonomic modification group; IC combined exercise and educational intervention; EI educational intervention; ROM range of motion; M male; F female; ↑ - increase; ↓ - decrease; → - no change; NR not reported