|Intervention domains for smoking cessation and prevention|
• Usually provided by a health professional
• Involves asking patients about their smoking status, advising them to quit and assisting with further help (e.g. prescription or referral).
• Takes no more than 5 min and can increase long-term abstinence rates by 1–3% .
• Proactive and lasts at least three sessions
• Involves motivational messages, advice for self-regulation,self-monitoring and social support
• Can increase long-term abstinence rates by 2–4% .
Intensive face-to-face support
• Provided one-to-one or in groups and usually lasts for at least 4-6 weekly sessions
• Involves provision of social support, advice, and encouragement to minimise motivation to smoke and maximise motivation to remain abstinent, increase the skills and capacity for self-control and optimise effective medication use.
• Strengthening ex-smoker identity, providing rewards and advising on changing routine have proven to be particularly important .
• Can increase long-term abstinence rates by 10% [47, 48].
• Wide-reaching and cheap way to communicate with smokers
• Involves the sending of targeted messages to motivate smokers to remain abstinent, provide information and advice on self-regulation.
• Can increases abstinence by up to 5% [49, 50]
• Can reach a large number of smokers, provide information in graphic form, have the option for interactive feedback and can exploit economies of scale.
• Evidence for internet-based interventions and apps is currently limited by the poor quality of most studies [51, 52].
|Nicotine replacement therapy|
• Includes various different forms (including gum, patch and spray)
• Should be provided for at least 8 weeks.
• Decreases the motivation to smoke by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms, reducing the rewarding effect of smoking and providing behavioural control.
• Can Increase long-term abstinence rates by around 10% [53, 54].
• Partial nicotine receptor
• Should be taken for at least 12 weeks
• Reduces cravings and withdrawal symptoms and the rewarding effects of smoking
• Is the most effective pharmacotherapy available , can increase long-term abstinence rates by around 15% .
• A combination of pharmacotherapy with behavioural support provides the best long-term outcomes for smoking cessation; can lead to abstinence rates of around 20% at 12 months .
• Evidence available that a combination of different pharmacotherapy is more effective than single form pharmacotherapy [58, 59].