Box plots of 194 individuals across 8793 genes before and after normalization. a, Box plots of 194 individuals across 8793 genes before normalization. b, Box plots from the representative two families before normalization. Green, grandparents; black, parents; red, siblings. c, After RMA normalization using all individuals (arrays) as normalization pool. d, After RMA normalization using within-pedigree pool. For panels a, c, and d, each color represents a different family.