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Mammary ductoscopy: past, present, future

Mammary ductoscopy is a powerful modality with enormous potential to help improve patient care through enhancing the diagnosis and treatment of patients with breast disease. The ability to see ductal pathology and monitor response to therapy real time has enormous potential to expand our understanding of disease processes. Technological improvements involving optics, scope design, ductal access and interventional ductoscopy becoming feasible will help move this field forward. Historical developments, current applications, personal experience, and future directions will be discussed.

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Correspondence to SM Feldman.

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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Feldman, S. Mammary ductoscopy: past, present, future. BMC Proc 3 (Suppl 5), S14 (2009).

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