There is on-going debate about the merits of programmes supported by international aid, with critics arguing that many programmes are unsustainable, that they follow international agendas and lead to fragmentation of national health systems. The debate focuses on large providing for patients' health needs and the impact of the programme within the public health system.
Vietnam has good health status compared to countries with similar economies, which can largely be attributed to its focus on primary care and the extensive coverage by commune health centres. Yet, rural populations have limited access to quality services. Vietnam faces a double burden of chronic and communicable diseases.